Oct 30, 2020  
Graduate and Pharmacy Catalog 2019-2020 
Graduate and Pharmacy Catalog 2019-2020 [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Doctor of Pharmacy/Masters of Business Administration Dual Degree

Return to {$returnto_text} Return to: Catalog Search

Program Goals & Objectives

The goal of the Pharm.D/M.B.A. Joint Degree program is to educate and develop students in the skills critical to be able to assume responsibilities as executives and managers in the pharmaceutical industry and in health care environment.The program is directed toward providing didactic and experiential education to students that will allow them to: (1) understand the major functional areas in managing healthcare organizations and patient care systems; and, (2) design and implement strategies and policies that produce effective management practices within changing health care environments.

Program Description

This program leads to a single degree (Pharm.D/M.B.A.) awarded jointly by the Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy and the Rinker School of Business. No degree is awarded until the student completes the entire program and meets all requirements of the Pharm.D/ M.B.A. joint degree. Candidates must first secure entrance into the Doctor of Pharmacy degree program in the School of Pharmacy. After successful completion of the first year of professional pharmacy coursework and the pre-requisite business courses required for prospective M.B.A. students, pharmacy students may apply to the Rinker School of Business for admission to the Pharm.D/M.B.A. joint degree program. Upon admission to the joint degree program, students continue in the Pharm.D. curriculum while also completing the business course requirements.

The approximate time required to complete all professional and graduate coursework is five years. Degree requirements for the joint program include 142 credits of pharmacy professional coursework, 12 credits of foundational business courses, and 36 credits of graduate business coursework. The following 21 credits of professional pharmacy coursework are also needed to complete the joint Pharm.D./M.B.A. degree.

Experiential Rotation in Pharmacy Management
(select one of the following)

  • PRX 4266    Institutional Administration Elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience
  • PRX 4286   Community Administration Elective Advanced Practice Experience


Pharmacy Coursework Applied to the M.B.A.

Note: Completion of ACG 2013 Financial Accounting or ACG 2023 Managerial Accounting for pre-requisite completion for the M.B.A. program satisfy the pharmacy elective requirement of 2 credit hours as long as the student completes the course while enrolled in the Doctor of Pharmacy program.  If these courses (or their equivalents) were taken prior to enrollment in the Doctor of Pharmacy program, they will not count towards the elective credit in the pharmacy program.  However, they might be eligible for consideration for satisfying the pre-requisite for the M.B.A. program.

Pharm.D./M.B.A. Admission Requirements

Admission to Pharm.D., M.B.A. dual degree program is selective. Strong interpersonal skills, communication ability, motivation, maturity, career focus and leadership potential are also important qualities in prospective students. Pharmacy students should express their interest in this program during the first professional year and seek the advice of the Director of Pharm.D., M.B.A. Program along with their advisor prior to completing the application.

Application Process:

  1. Student must first apply and gain admission to the Pharm.D. program.
  2. Students are highly encouraged to express interest through the “Intent to Apply” form during the first year of the pharmacy program. This form is due by November 1st.  However, students may express interest at any time.
  3. Student completes all foundational (pre-requisite) courses for the M.B.A. program including:
  • ACG 2013  - Financial Accounting (3 credits)
  • ACG 2023  - Managerial Accounting (3 credits)
  • BUS 2013   - Business Statistics (3 credits)
  • BUS 2343   - Principles of Macroeconomics (3 credits)** or 
  • BUS 2353   - Principles of Microeconomics (3 credits)


  1. After the successful completion of the first pharmacy year, the student must submit the Pharm.D., M.B.A. Application form.
  2. The recommendations from the student’s advisor, the Director of the Pharm.D., M.B.A. Program, and the Chair of Graduate Programs (Rinker  School of Business) are required as part of the application process. 

     6. The following criteria may be considered when making a decision about entrance into the program:

  • Cumulative pharmacy GPA of 3.2 or higher.
  • Performance in core didactic courses, including but not limited to foundational science courses, pharmacotherapy courses, and patient care courses.
  • Performance in MBA pre-requisite courses such as statistics and economics.
  • Student response(s) to the essay submitted with the application form.

     7. The Assistant/Associate Dean of Academics in the Gregory School of Pharmacy will review the recommendations from the student’s advisor, the             Director of the Pharm.D., M.B.A. Program, and the Chair of Graduate Programs (Rinker School of Business) to determine student acceptance into           the dual degree program. The Assistant/Associate Dean for Academics will notify the student applicant of the outcome of the application process             and submit the completed application form to the Registrar’s office.

     8. Modified track students or any other students not meeting the above criteria may petition the Assistant/Associate Dean of Academics for                         enrollment into the dual degree program. The Assistant/Associate Dean of Academics will review these cases on an individualized basis with                   the student’s advisor and the Director of the Pharm.D.,M.B.A Program.

** Pre-pharmacy prerequisites may meet these course requirements.

NOTE: The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is no longer required for admission to the program.

Course Scheduling

There are a variety of scheduling options for successfully completing the Pharm.D, M.B.A. dual degree coursework. The time required will depend upon the student’s initiative in scheduling M.B.A. courses while still completing pharmacy courses.

M.B.A. course schedules will be determined by the Director of the Pharm.D.,M.B.A Program and Chair of Graduate Programs (Rinker School of Business) in consultation with the student.  The Assistant/Associate Dean for Academics will register the student for M.B.A. courses each semester.

Students must complete the didactic pharmacy coursework within 5 years as noted in the Academic Probation and Dismissal Policy. The M.B.A. course work must be completed within 2 years of completion of the pharmacy degree. 

Curriculum Requirements

A grade of at least “C” and a GPA of at least 2.0 on a four-point scale is required for “successful” completion of all pharmacy coursework. For M.B.A. courses, a student will be placed on Academic Probation at the end of a term if he/she does not meet the cumulative 3.0 GPA. In addition, a student can receive a grade of “C” in two courses during the M.B.A. program to maintain good standing. Students placed on Academic Probation must meet and be cleared by the Chair of Graduate Programs (Rinker School of Business) and the Director of the Pharm.D., M.B.A. program prior to registering for the next term.

If a student feels that he/she is unable to complete the course work for the dual degree program or changes their mind regarding enrollment in the dual degree program, he/she may consult with the Chair of Graduate Programs (Rinker School of Business), the Director of the Pharm.D., M.B.A Program, and the Assistant/Associate Dean for Academics. Based on these discussions, the student can transfer to the Doctor of Pharmacy program only.

Program Learning Outcomes

“Expected student learning outcomes specify the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes students are expected to attain in courses or in a program.” Page 69. Resource Manual for the Principles of Accreditation: Foundations for Quality Enhancement, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC), 2018.

Upon completion of the pharmacy program, our graduates will be:

Medication Experts

As a medication expert, our graduates will be able to:

  1. Provide medication therapy management to patients by employing knowledge of biochemistry, pharmacology, and physiological effects of a drug to optimize outcomes, reduce adverse events, and prevent drug interactions.
  2. Design drug dosing regimens for patients utilizing population or patient-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters.
  3. Apply knowledge of the physiochemical properties, manufacture, and compounding of pharmaceutical ingredients to recommend an optimal drug delivery formulation.
  4. Resolve medication-related problems by critically evaluating scientific literature to make evidence-based recommendations.

Patient-Centered Care Practitioners

As a patient-centered care practitioner, our graduates will be able to:

  1. Provide pharmacist-mediated, evidence-based, patient-centered care to diverse populations.
  2. Evaluate patient- and treatment-specific factors to select the most appropriate treatment options, prevention strategies and referral when necessary.
  3. Develop strategies to address patient barriers to medication adherence, including those arising from cultural context and health care disparities.
  4. Explain to patients, caregivers, and health care professionals the judicious use of medications within a comprehensive therapeutic plan.
  5. Document pertinent patient care information in the health record in a clear and concise manner that complies with safe medication practices.
  6. Demonstrate the ability to recommend non-pharmacotherapy as a component of disease prevention and treatment.
  7. Evaluate a medication order or prescription to ensure the safe, effective and accurate use of medications.

Servant Leaders

As a servant leader, our graduates will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate servant leadership by modeling Christ’s example of serving, teaching, and healing to positively influence patient and employee behaviors.
  2. Develop skills for life-long learning and continual professional development to remain a competent pharmacist and lead others within the profession of pharmacy.
  3. Collaborate with colleagues and other health care practitioners using teamwork, judgment, and self-directed learning to provide evidenced-based pharmaceutical care.
  4. Establish covenantal relationships with patients that foster trust, build effective patient-provider relationships, and optimize health outcomes. 

Professional Communicators

As a professional communicator, our graduates will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate effective and collaborative communication skills with all members of a healthcare team as the patient care advocate and medication expert.
  2. Communicate health and medication-related information to patients and other health care providers in an effective and comprehensible manner utilizing appropriate drug information resources.
  3. Demonstrate professionalism in all forms of communication, including verbal, electronic, and written communication.
  4. Exhibit empathy and respect while counseling patients, particularly in difficult and sensitive matters, including cultural, spiritual, and socioeconomic issues.
  5. Perform confidently as the medication expert within an interprofessional team to provide medication therapy management. 

Pharmacy Systems Managers

As a pharmacy systems manager, our graduates will be able to:

  1. Adhere to current healthcare system principles, including regulatory, legal, ethical, and financial, to systematically assess and improve health care outcomes and prevent medication errors.
  2. Participate in the development, implementation, and/or evaluation of system practices to ensure safe and accurate medication use.
  3. Assess and report team performance to effectively promote organization efficiency and employee satisfaction.
  4. Manage human, physical, and financial pharmacy aspects of a health care delivery system to develop and implement collaborative cost-effective care.
  5. Reconcile appropriate use of medications upon transition of care to identify and prevent medication-related problems.
  6. Utilize health informatics and technological resources to optimize care, and promote patient safety and continuous quality improvement.


Gregory School of Pharmacy Coursework

Required 1st Year Courses - 35.5 Credit Hours

Required 2nd Year Courses - 32 Credit Hours

Required 3rd Year Courses - 32.5 Credit Hours

Approved Pharmacy Electives - 2 Credit Hours

Select one of the following, to be taken any time prior to the fourth year of study. Students should consult with their academic advisor for assistance in determining the most appropriate course and semester of study.

  • ACG 2013 - Financial Accounting 3 Credit Hours*
  • ACG 2023 - Managerial Accounting 3 Credit Hours*
  • BIB 2053 - Evangelism and Apologetics 3 Credit Hours*
  • CCS 3013 - Cultural Competence and Ethnography 3 Credit Hours*
  • CCS 4033 - Cross-Cultural Understandings of Illness and Health 3 Credit Hours*
  • MLS 2043 - Spiritual Formation 3 Credit Hours*
  • MLS 2413 - Principles of Christian Leadership 3 Credit Hours*
  • MLS 3093 - Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness for Ministry 3 Credit Hours*
  • NUR 4333 - End of life issues and concepts 3 Credit Hours*
  • PRX 359X - Independent Study 1, 2, 3, or 4 Credit Hours 
  • PRX 3012 - Topics in Veterinary Medicine 2 Credit Hours
  • PRX 3032 - Coaching for Health and Wellness 2 Credit Hours
  • PRX 3527 - Contemporary Topics in Pharmacy Practice 2 Credit Hours
  • PRX 3552 - The Pharmaceutical R&D Process 2 Credit Hours
  • SPN 1003 - Spanish for the Non-Speaking Pharmacy Professional 3 Credit Hours*
  • NUR 5013 - Faith and Science 3 Credit Hours*
  • PRX 3242 - Lifestyle and Health 2 Credit Hours
  • PRX 3592 - Independent Study in Advanced Compounding Topics 2 Credit Hours

* Please see the Undergraduate Day Catalog for course descriptions, which will detail prerequisites and course availability.

Required 4th Year Courses - 42 Credit Hours

In addition to the required Pharm.D. APPEs, the Pharm.D., M.B.A. student must complete both of the following elective APPE experiences (or APPE with equivalent managerial experience as approved by Director of Pharm.D., M.B.A Program and the Assistant Dean for Experiential Programs):

PRX 4266   Institutional Administration Elective APPE

PRX 4286   Community Administration Elective APPE

Elective Rotations - 18 Credit Hours

Select one of the following Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) courses:

Rinker School of Business Coursework

Foundational Business Courses - 12 Credit Hours

These courses may be taken concurrently with the Graduate Business Courses.

Return to {$returnto_text} Return to: Catalog Search